AURORA´s Indicators

Scope of the indicators

All AURORA’s indicators take into consideration wind conditions and are calculated for the whole trajectory of the flight – from origin to destination -. They are structured in the following subsets:

  • Indicators to improve the analysis of the horizontal component of the flight;
  • Indicators to address the vertical component of the flight;
  • Indicators which are focused on the fuel consumption;
  • Indicators which are focused on the airlines’ costs dealing with flight time and fuel consumption;
  • Indicators which are focused on the total airlines’ costs, considering flight time, fuel duration and taxes.

All indicators are calculated by comparing the actual and planned trajectories with certain reference trajectories. The following trajectories are generated in 4D:

  • Actual trajectories;
  • Trajectories based on the flight plan;
  • Geodesic trajectories;
  • Free-routing trajectories optimizing the fuel consumption (Cost Index = 0);
  • Free-routing trajectories optimizing the cost of flight time and fuel (Cost Index ≠ 0);
  • Trajectories optimising the cost of flight time, fuel and taxes[1].

A high-level view of AURORA’s indicators is represented in the following picture. An example of AURORA’s nomenclature is also included. Vertical and equity indicators are not shown in the picture and will be explained in the following section.

Definition of indicators

The following table explains the main AURORA’s indicators when analysing the actual trajectories. The same scheme is reproduced when comparing the planed trajectories with a certain reference trajectory. In this case, the nomenclature changes to a “P” instead of an “A”, e.g. FEP-DW instead of FEA-DW quantifies the extra-fuel consumption of the planned trajectory in comparison with the geodesic trajectory.

Indicator Subset Reference trajectory Description
KEA Horizontal Geodesic It quantifies the horizontal deviations of the actual trajectory in comparison with the geodesic trajectory.
FEA-DW Fuel Geodesic It quantifies the extra-fuel consumption of the actual trajectory in comparison with the geodesic trajectory.
FEA-FW Fuel Optimal fuel-based It quantifies the extra-fuel consumption of the actual trajectory in comparison with the optimal fuel-based trajectory.
VEA-DW Vertical Geodesic It quantifies the vertical flight efficiency comparing average flight level of the actual trajectory with average flight level of the geodesic trajectory.
VEA-FW Vertical Optimal Fuel-Based It quantifies the vertical flight efficiency comparing average flight level of the actual trajectory with average flight level of the optimal fuel-based trajectory.
VEA-CW1 Vertical Optimal Cost-Based (time and fuel) It quantifies the vertical flight efficiency comparing average flight level of the actual trajectory with average flight level of the optimal cost-based trajectory (time and fuel).
VEA-CW2 Vertical Optimal Cost-Based (time, fuel and taxes) It quantifies the vertical flight efficiency comparing average flight level of the actual trajectory with average flight level of the optimal cost-based trajectory following the flight plan.
KEA-FW[2] Horizontal Optimal fuel-based It quantifies the horizontal deviations of the actual trajectory in comparison with the optimal fuel-based trajectory.
CEA-CW1 Cost Optimal Cost-Based (time and fuel) It quantifies the extra-costs of the actual trajectory in comparison with the optimal cost-based trajectory (time and fuel).
CEA-W2 Cost Optimal Cost Based (time, fuel and taxes) It quantifies the extra-costs of the actual trajectory in comparison with the optimal cost-based trajectory following the flight plan.
EQ-1P Equity Flight Plan

It quantifies the differences between airlines in the percentage of flights that achieve the requested flight level[3].

It compares maximum flight level of actual trajectory with maximum flight level of the flight plan trajectory.

The indicator can also provide results for Equity at aggregated level like: Equity per City-Pair, ECAC level and European region.

EQ-1F Equity Optimal Fuel-Based

It quantifies the differences between airlines in the percentage of flights that achieve the requested flight level.

It compares maximum flight level of actual trajectory with maximum flight level of optimal fuel-based trajectory.

The indicator can also provide results for Equity at aggregated level like: Equity per City-Pair, ECAC level and European region.

EQ-1C Equity

Optimal Cost-Based (time and fuel)

It quantifies the differences between airlines in the percentage of flights that achieve the requested flight level.

It compares maximum flight level of actual trajectory with maximum flight level of optimal cost-based trajectory.

The indicator can also provide results for Equity at aggregated level like: Equity per City-Pair, ECAC level and European region.

EQ-3 Equity Planned trajectory

It quantifies the differences between airlines in terms of fuel consumption.

It compares fuel consumption of actual trajectories with fuel consumption of planned trajectories.

The indicator can also provide results for Equity at aggregated level like: Equity per City-Pair, ECAC level and European region.

EQ-4 Equity Planned Trajectory

It quantifies the differences between airlines in terms of costs.

It compares costs of actual trajectories with costs of planned trajectories.

The indicator can also provide values for Equity at aggregated level like: Equity per City-Pair, ECAC level and European region.

 

[1] It is assumed that airlines have proposed flight plans that optimise taxes. Thus these trajectories are calculated by following the proposed flight plans horizontally and optimising the vertical profile to reduce cost of flight time and fuel.

[2] This indicator is used only to support the analysis of the added value of the vertical indicators, integrating KEA-FW, FEA-FW and VEA-FW which are three indicators using the same reference trajectory, the optimal fuel-based trajectory.

[3] Requested flight level is assumed as the optimum for the airline.

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